CHIYAMBI CHA KAYANKHIDWE KAMAFUNSO

Ndithu Namalenga mwini ulemelero wonse adamulenga mwana kukhala wokonda kufunsa mafunso; ndicholinga choti athire mu nzeru zake mlingo waukulu wa matanthuazo ndi maphunziro, ndipo msinkhu wa umwana umatchedwa msinkhu wa mafunso, chifukwa zambiri mwa zomwe mwana amakamba pa msinkhu umeneu ndi mafunso.

Ndiye ana amadzizindikira kuti iwo sadziwa chililchonse chokhudza zitnhu zomwe zawazungulura, pa chifukwa choti umbuli umabweretsa mantha; ndithu anawo zimawakankhira ku maphunziro ndi kufuna kudziwa chilichonse pogwiritsa mphamvu zake zonse, moti tipeza kuti mwana wa zaka zitatu amafunsa makolo ndi achibale ake akulu akulu milu yankhani nkhani ya mafunso tsiku ndi tsiku, ndipo mosakaika mayankho awo pa mafunso amenewa amasintha chinachake mwa iwo, komanso amamunyamula iye kuchoka pamene ali ndikumuika pena, izi timaziona kudzera mu kasinthidwe ka kafunsidwekake ndi mitu yomwe ikufusidwa kawiri kawiri.

Ndithu inu mumakhala mukumva mau akubwerawa nthawi zambriri kuchokera kwa ana: nchiyani? chimapezeka kuti? chinasanduka bwanji? Chinachokera kuti? Nchiti?kodi mumadziwa? Ndithu iye amafuna kudziwa chilichonse chomwe chingabweretse chidwi chake(mwanayo), ndipo amafuna kumvetsa (93), zinthu zomwe amaziona ndizomwe amazimva, iye atha kulimvetsa yankholo kapena ayi, angathenso kumvetsera mwachidwi kwa nthawi yokwanira kapena ayi?.

Ndithu mwana amadziwika ndi mtima wokonda kutulukira zinthu zachilendo, ichi chimatha kuonjezereka malinga ndi nyengo yomwe mwanayo akukhala, komanso malinga ndi mipata (mwayi) yomwe iye akupatsidwa, pa chifukwa ichi; ndithu ife timakhala odabwa tikayerekeza mafunso athu pamene tinali ana ndimafunso omwe anawo akufunsa panopa; malinga ndi kusiyana kwa nthawi, malo komanso kupita kutsogolo kwa maphunziro, ndipo mosakaika njira yakaphunzitsidwe yomwe aphunzitsi amagwiritsa ntchito imasintha china chake moonekera makamaka popititsa patsogolo mafunso a ana kapena kuchepetsa (mafunsowo), moti mphunzitsi amapereka mpata kwa mwana namalandira mwa nsangala mafunso omwe ana akufunsa, (mphunzitsi) yemwe samatha nkuyankha komwe mafunso a ana namakana kuyankha kapena kumawayankha mwaukali ana sangamufunse iye funso lililonse (94), ngakhale kuti tonsefe timavomereza kuti sizikufunikira kuti mwana adziwe chilichonse ayi, koma kuti chomwe chikufunika kwambiri ndichoti asamaope kufunsa zina mwazithu zomwe zimachitika pa umoyo wake, ndipo chithu china chofunikiranso ndi chakutianawo samaona kuti tikuwasala kapena kuti sitimawakhulupilira.
Ndipo chofunikira kwambiri kuposa zonsezi ndi ichi: ana aziona kuti iwo ali ndi kuthekera kothandizira maganizo akamalankhulana ndi anthu apa banja lake (95).

ZIFUKWA ZOMWE ZIMAPANGITSA ANA KUKHALA NDI MAFUNSO OCHULUKA

Nzotheka kuzitchula zifukwa zomwe zili zofunikira kwambiri zomwe zimapangitsa mwana kufunsa mafunso mochuluka motere:

  1. Kufunitsitsa kwa mwana kuti azitulukire zithu zachilendo ngati njira yokwaniritsa zofuna zamsinkhu wake komanso nzeru zake.
  2. Khumbokhumbo lomwe ana amakhala nalo lofuna kuchimvetsa chilichonse chomwe chamuzungulira monga maonekedwe a zinthu ndi zinthu zenizzenizo.
  3. Khumbokhumbo lomwe ana amakhala nalo lofuna kuchimvetsa chilichonse chomwe chamuzungulira monga maonekedwe a zinthu ndi zinthu zenizzenizo.
  4. Kuonjezereka kwa kuthekera kwake pa chilankhulo, mwana akamalumikiza mafunso – lina pambuyo pa linzake-; sikuti kumakhala kufunitsitsa kupeza yankho ayi, koma ndi khumbo khumbo lake lofuna kuyesetsa kuyankhula ndi kuwawalira anzake kuthekera kumeneko, komanso kufuna kutenga mbali pa zochita za anthu a ku deralo.
  5. Kuonetsa kukhuzidwa ndi mpata womwe wapezeka wokambirana ndi kuthandizana pakati pa makolo ndi ana.
  6. Kukamaonjezereka kudalira kwa mwanayo pa iye mwini ndi pa makolo ake, komanso kuonjezereka kwa kudzilemekeza kwa iye mwini (96).

CHIBADWA CHA MAFUNSO A ANA

Kuti tithe kuwamvetsa bwino mafunso a ana: tikuyenera kusiyanitsa pakati pa mafunso a nzeru ndi a chiyankhulo, ndi pakati pamafunso a umoyo; chifukwa pa mtundu wamafunso woyambawo mwana amafunitsitsa kudziwa kapena kuuzidwa zachithu china chake, pomwe pa mtundu wachiwiriwo iye amangofuna kupeza chomwe chingapangitse kudekhetsa mtima wake, osati yankho leni lenilo ayi, moti chimene amafuna mwana ndi kumuzindikiritsa choonadi chachikulu chomwe ndi: cholinga chenicheni chomwe mafunsowo abwelera (chomwe chapangitsa kuti wofunsayo afunse), ndipo ife sitingathe kudziwa zonse zofunikira mufunsolo, kapena kulimvetsetsa bwino bwino ndi kuzindikira zonse zomwe funsolo likufunsa, pokha pokha kudzera mukudziwa zomwe zapangitsa mwanayo kuti afunse funsolo, moti funso pa lokha silingapereke matanthauzo onse omwe akufunika, koma kudzera munyengo yomwe yamuzungulira mwanayo ndi zomwe zimapangitsa kuti afunse, tigathe kudziwa matanthauzo ake onse, zofuna zake komanso kufunikira kwake (kwa funsolo). Ndithu mafunso a ana amagwira ntchito zitatu zofunikira pomukonza mwanayo, ntchito zake ndi izi:

  1. Kukwaniritsa kulungama kwa mtima wa mwana, mafunso ambiri amwana amawatenga kuchokera mu mtima (m’mene akumvera mumtima mwake).
  2. Kuganiza mwa mfundo; chifukwa mwana amayetsetsa kudziwa zachilendo, pogwiritsa ntchito zomwe akudziwa, amathanso kudziwira zomwe samazidziwa kapena kulumikizira ndi zina (zomwe amazidziwa kale).
  3. Kudziwa zinthu zomwe zamuzungulira ndi zinthu zina zofunikira kwambiri pa umoyo; monga kudziwa zikhalidwe ndi miyambo komanso zichitochito zomwe zimapezeka mu zikhalidwe za anthuzamdera lomwe mwanayo akukhala (97).

MITUNDU YA MAFUNSO A ANA

Nzofunikira kwambiri kuti tiyesetse kuwagawa mmagulu mafunso omwe ana amakonda kufunsa, chifukwa mayankho ake amakhala osiyana malinga ndikusiyana kwa maguluwa, ndipo tingawagawe motere:

  1. Mafunso okhudza chiyankhulo monga: chifukwa chiyani zinthu izi zimatchedwa ndi maina amenewa? Chifukwa ninji sitimasitha maina amenewa? Chifukwa chiyani sitimapeka chiyankhulo china.
  2. Mafunso okhudza kupezeka kwa zinthu monga: kodi tinachokera kuti? Nanga tikupita kuti? Kodi ana amachokera kuti? Kodi imfa ndi chiyani? Tandilongosolereni zokhudza dzikoli? ndi mafunso ena otero.
  3. Mafunso oukira: mafunso oterewa amazungulira pakuti: chifukwa chiyani ana saloledwa kulowelera nkhani za akulu akulu? Mafunso obwera mosonyeza kuyesera kukhala ngati akulu akulu- nthawi zambiri- kudzera m’mafunso.
  4. Mafunso oyesa (amayeso): awa ndi mafunso omwe ana amafunsa ndi cholinga chofuna kuyesa kuthekera komwe ofunsidwawo ali nako, komanso ndi cholinga choti adzudzule kufooka komwe angakupeze pa ofunsidwawo, izi zimakonda kuchitika kawiri kawiri pofuna kuwayerekeza ofunsidwawo ndi akatswiri ena omwe anawo akuwadziwa kapena amene amawakonda, ndipo nthawi zambiri mafunso amenewa amazungulira pa kuthekera kwa anthu ndi chuma komanso kwathupi lokha.
  5. Mafunso osonyeza kubanika kwa umwana: nthawi zambiri ana amafunsa mafunso ofuna kuchotsa kubanika komwe kukupezeka mwa iwowo, ndipo ambiri mwa mafunso osonyeza kubanika omwe amawapezapeza ana ndi: okhudza kusowa kwa mmodzi mwa makolo awiri, kapena mitundu ina yakunyanyalitsana.
  6. Mafunso ofuna kudziwa zinsinsi za thupi: ndipo oyambilira mwa mafunso amenewa amakhala okhudza kusiyana kumene kuli pakati pa thupi la mwamuna ndi mkazi.

Kugawa mitundu ndi magulu amafunso kumeneku kungathandize wofunsidwayo kudziwa chomwe chapangitsa anawo kuti afunse mafunsowo, chifukwa iwo safunsa funso chabe ayi, koma kuti pamakhala chomwe akufuna achimvetse m’moyo wawo (98).

CHIFUKWA CHIYANIMAKOLO ENA SALABADIRAMAFUNSO A ANA?Ndithu kusalabadira mafunso a ana, nthawi zina kumachitika chifukwa chakunyansidwa kapena kusakhutitsidwa ndi mafunsowo, nthawi zina zimachitika chifukwa cha kusadziwa yankho ndi kufunikira kwa funsolo, kapena kusadziwa ntchito yomwe funsolo lingagwire mumtima wa wofunsayo kapena kumbali ya maphunziro, koma zimachitika kamba ka zifukwa zina, ndipo zofunika kwambiri mwa izo ndi monga:

  1. Wamkulu akaona kuti funso la mwanalo ndi lodabwitsa, kapena lopanda pake, kapena mwanayo akupanga zamacheza, izi zimapangitsa wofunsidwayo kuti asalabadire funsolo kapena kulikhalira tcheru; kotero akulu akulu amakhala akuwaphwanyira ana ufulu woganiza kudzera mu njira yawo yosazungulira ndi yomveka bwino yogwirizana ndi umwana wawo, ndiye kuwaphwanyira ufulu kumeneku akulu akulu amakutenga ngati chida chawo cha nzeru, kuiwala kuti mwana amafunsa funso lophweka komanso lopanda milandu, mkati mwake muli cholinga chofuna kuzindikira kapena kudziwa chilengedwe chomwe chamuzungulira kuphatikiza apo cholinga cha mumtima mwake chomwe chapangitsa kuti afunse chomwe akufuna kupeza pompopompo, chomwe chili kubwezeretsa mtima wake m’malo mwake womwe unasuntha kanthawi kena kake.
  2. Akulu akulu akadziwa kuti funso lomwe mwanayo wafunsa ndi lovuta; makamaka kuti likakhala funsolokuti ndi lokhudza mbali ina ya zinthu zoletsedwa kudelaro kapena kumakhalidwe achikhalidwe china chake, moti silikufunika kuliyankha kufikira atafika msikhu wina wake. Ndiye kuvuta ndikukolana kwa mafunso a ana kumeneku kumapangitsa akulu akulu kusowa choyankha. Pachifukwa chimenechi akulu akulu akuyenera kudzikonze-keretsa okha mokwanira kuti azitha kuyankha moyenera mafunso ngati amenewa.
  3. Nthawi zina kuchuluka ndi kubwera mwakathithi kwa mafunso kumapangitsanso akulu akulu kusawalabadira mafunsowo. Koma akadakhala kuti akulu akulu amakhala akudziwa zakufunikira kwa mafunso amenewa iwo sakadatero, m’malo mwake iwo akadawalimbikitsanso anawo kuti apitilize kufunsa mafunso awo, bwenzinso anawo akuganiza mwaubwino.
  4. Chinanso chomwe chimawapangitsa akulu akulu kuti asacheukire kapena asalabadire mafunso a ana ndi chakuti mafunso a ana ena samakhala achindunji.
  5. Kuthekanso makolo kuthawa mafunso a ana akakhala kuti sakudziwa zomwe anawo akufuna kudziwazo. Nde tikuwauza makolo otere kuti; mukuyenera kufufuza mayankho amafunso a ana anu komanso muwafotokozere mayankho mosawabisira komanso mosawanamiza (99).
  6. Zikakhalakuti zomwe anawo akufunsa ndi zopitilira msinkhu wa nzeru zawo kotero kuti mayankho ake angafune kusanthula kwa pamwamba ndi kovuta, zikatero makolo amayamba kuganiza kuti kodi mwana ameneyu walipeza kuti funso limeneli (100), kenako amalisiya funsolo osaliyankha.
KODI MAKOLO ANGAkwanitse BWANJI kuyankha MAFUNSO A ANA?Ndithu nzoyenera kwa makolo kupereka mayankho olondola amafunso a ana. Komanso akuyenera kukonza njira zosiyana siyana zamikambirano zokhudza mafunso a ana pankhani ya chikhulupiliro, namawathandiza anawo kuti azilankhula maganizo awo okhudza chipembedzo, ndicholinga choti ayike mwaiwo kukhazikika ndi kukhutitsidwa, komanso kuzindikira kolondola pa chipembedzo, zomwe zingateteze chipembedzo chawo cholondola komanso chosapunguka kapena kupyola muyeso (101). Sikuti makolo akukakamizidwa kuzindikira mayankho amafunso onseolondola a ana pa chipembedzo ayi, koma kuwalongosolera anawo momveka bwino msanamira za chikhulupiliro kuti akule ali pa chikhulupiliro champhamvu mwa Mulungu (102), ndipo ndibwino kumuuza mwana wamkulu mwaiwo kuti azilemba mafunso a mwana, ndipo nchapafupi kwa iye kuulandira udindo umenewu, makamaka akaona chidwi ndichilimbikitso, ndipo anawo adzaona kuti zimenezi ndi zosangalatsa kwa iwo.

Komanso kumbali ina timakhala tikudzala mwa ana akulu akulu kufunikira kwa funso lililonse, ndikutinso mafunsowa amapereka ulemelero ndi udindo, choncho iwo amafunsa, komanso timadzala mwa iwo chidwi pa mafunso a ana awo mtsogolo akadzakhala makolo.

Kumbali inanso: timakhala ndi mulu wa mafunso omwe angatithandize kufufuza mayankho ake, komanso angathandize kudziwa mafunso omwe abale ndi azilongo awo adzidzafunsa pambuyo pake nakozekerera chile. Mwana adzakhala wosangalala tikamadzampatsa yakho la zomwe amafunsa mmbuyomu, ndikuonetsa chidwi chofuna kumpatsa yankho la bwino la mafunso ake, kudzasintha mwa iye chinthu chachikulu – Mulungu akaloleza kutero -, komanso mgwirizano wathu ndi iye udzapita patsogolo, ndipo mwana ameneyu adzawatenga makolo ake ngati gwero loyamba ndi lodalilika la maphunziro ake muzaka zili mkudza m’malo motenga maphunziro ake kuchokera m’malo okaikitsa makamaka akadzakula (103).

Apa pali mfundo yoyenera kuti makolo achenjere nayo, yomwe ndi: kufunika kosiyanitsa pakati pa mitundu iwiri ya mafunso;
– Mtunduwoyamba: mafunso ofunikira kwambiri omwe mwanayo akumawabwereza bwereza, atha kufunsa kwa anthu angapo m’banjamo, ndipo mafunso amenewa amathanso kutulutsa mafunso ena.
– Mtunduwachiwiri: mafunso osafunikira kwambiri, omwe titati tiyambe kukambirana naye mwanayo nkhani Ina yakeangathe kuliyiwala funsolo, komabe tiyesetse kuliyankha, kapena kumufufuzira yankho kapena kumpatsa munthu yemwe angayankhe bwino funsolo, mukutero muli kukonzekera maphunziro ndi kufunikira kwake. Pomwe mafunso osafunikira kwambiri aja; palibe kathu kuwasiya makamaka akakhala okhudzazinthu zoti yankho lake sangathe kulitolera mwanayo.

MAZIKO OKUTHANDIZIRA KUYANKHA MAFUNSO A ANA

Pali maziko ndi miyambo ingapo yoyenera kwa makolo kuigwiritsa ntchito ndi kuilingalira poyankha mafunso a ana, ena mwaiwo ndi awa:

  1. Kulemekeza: makolo omwe amatchera khutu kumvetsera mafunso a mwana amapangitsa mwanayo kuchimva mu mtima mwake kuti makolowo nawonso amalemekeza ndi kukhudzidwa ndi mavuto amwanayo limodzi naye, kuthandizana naye kumeneku kumampatsa mwanayu kukhazikika kwa mtima ndi kulongosoka kwake pakutero mwana amadzidalira yekha mwachangu, ndikukhala wosamala pofunsa mafunso komanso kusanja nfundopolankhula pamene akukambirana.
  2. Kudalira komanso chitetezo; makolo ayesetse kuyankha mafunso a ana awo mwakuya pogwiritsa ntchito mau odziwika ndi ozolowereka kwa anawo, komanso pofewetsa zomwe akuwauza anazo mogwirizana ndi dongosolo la maphunziro abwino. Ndithu zoti yankho linali loona zimaonekera kumapeto kukapezeka kukhazikika kwa mtima.
  3. Kuthetsa zomwe zimapangitsa mwanayo kufunsa; makamaka zomupangitsa zake zikuchokera mu zomwe zikumuchitikira kapena komwe akukhala, mwachitsanzo: mwana yemwe akumva kubanika ndi kusokonezeka chifukwa cha kubadwa mwana watsopano m’banjamo amatha kufunsa kuti: kodi ana amachokera kuti? Sizingatheke kumuthetsera vuto lakeli pongomuyankha zomwe ukudziwa ayi, koma pakufunika kumuthandizira pakuphwetsa chomwe chamupangitsa kuti afunse funso loteleri, ndikuonetsa chidwi chapadera pazimenezi (104)

Ndithu chinthu chapamwamba chomwe akulu akulu angapereke kwa achichepere ndiko kuwathandizira kuwalitsa nzeru zawo, osati kumangowakambira nkhani ndi nthano komanso osati kudzera muzikhalidwe zolondola zokha ayi, komakudzera mukuwaphunzitsa kuganiza ndikuwapatsa mitu yoti alingalire, ndikuwazoloweretsa kuti asamakhutitsidwe ndi zinthu zoonekera ndi zapamwamba zokha ayi, koma kuwapangitsa kuti aziganiziranso koposera pazimenezo (105), ndipo pakufunika kulolerana mwaubwino ndi mkambirano womanga komanso wokhala ndi masomphenya ndi kuthandizana pamaganizo (106),ndipo makolo akuyenera kuwafunsa anawo mafunso omwe angawapangitse anawo kulingalira.

Tingathenso kugwiritsa ntchito yankho la mafunso mwaluntha, makolo apemphe mwana kapena kumupatsa mwana ganizo lofunsa funso lake pa mkumano wapa banja lonse, kenako makolo apereke mwayi woyankha funsolokwa onse, funsolo likakhala funso wamba kapena si la tcheru, koma chofunika kwambiri kuonesetsa kuti mwanayo asapatsidwe chitozo kuchokera kwa mkulu wake chifukwa chakulephera kufunsa funso labwino (kufoila), koma ngati zitachitika zoterozo, kholo lidzayenera kuimira mbali ya mwanayo kwinaku akumuchemerera chifukwa chachangamu chake chofunsa funso ndi kufunikira kwa aliyense kofunsa mafunso, ndi mowakumbutsa mau aMulungu onena kuti: “Ndipo kuzindikira komwe mwapatsidwa ndi kochepazedi”. (Surat Al Isra: 85).
Ndipo kudzera mu kuyankhana mafunso pagulu kumakwanilitsa zolinga zomwe zimakwanilitsdwa kudzera m’mafunso a mwana.

KUPHUNZITSA pogwiritsa ntchito NKAMBIRANO

Ndithu njira yoyenera yamaphunziro kwa ana ndi njira yokambirana yomwe imatheka kudzera mu kukambirana mafunso ndi mayankho; chifukwa njira imeneyi imathandiza kutsegula kapena kutakasula lilime ndikupeza luso lodzapangira maphunziro, ndiye kukambirana ndi kumene kumayandikitsa luso limeneli ndi kupezeketsa zolinga zake (107), ndipo nthawi yamkambiranoyi mwana akuyenera kulemekezedwa, ichi chidzachotsa mwa mwana mantha, maganizo, kubanika komanso matenda amu mtima monga kuponderezedwa ndi kusalidwa, mwana akamamva mpumulo wa mu mtima panthawi yokambirana, amachotsa mantha, matenda ndi zotopetsa zomwe zili mu mtima mwake, magulu onse awiri akapeza zifukwa zavuto nalankhulana aliyense mosapsatira kapena mosaphiphiritsa zakukhosi kwake, zikatero kuthetsa vuto kumakhala kosavuta, chimodzi modzinso kupambana kumakhala kosavuta (108).

Ndithu kukambirana kwa pakati pa mwana ndi makolo ake zimabweretsam’banjamo maubwino monga:
I. Kuzindikira; kotero mwana amaziyandikitsa chifupi kwambiri kwa anthu ena am’banjalo.
II. Chiyanjano; kukambirana kumaonjezera chiyanjano pakati pa anthu am’banja limodzi, ndipo amakondana komanso amayandikirana kwambiri.
III. Kufewerana mtima; tikutanthauza kuti sitimakambirana ndi cholinga chongofuna kukwaniritsa chomwe tidakhazikitsa (zoti tizikambirana) kokha ayi, koma timafuna kukwanilitsa tanthauzo leni leni la kukambirana, lomwe ndi kugwiritsa ntchito liwu lokoma ndi nyengo yoyenera (109).

Kuchokera muzimene talongosolazi tikupeza kuti kuphunzitsa pogwiritsa ntchito kukambirana kuli ndi maubwino awa:

  1. Kumpatsa mwana ufulu woganizira ndi kuzitulukira zachilendo paiye yekha, pakutero zimamulimbikitsa iye kuyambitsa zamakono ndikukweza umunthu wake.
  2. Nkophweka kuphunzira mu njira imeneyi chifukwa simafuna zambiri, ndipo mwana amakwanitsa mwa mtima m’malo ndimosayalutsidwa.
  3. Kumalowetsa m’mitima ya ana nsangala ndi kudzimva kuti iyeyonso payekha ndi wokwanira, komanso zimawaphunzitsa anawo kuwamvetsera ena akamalankhula.
  4. Kumapereka mpata woganizira ndi kufufuza mwa iye yekha, moti amaona zinthu mukaonekedwe kosiyana siyana, ndipo kumamuzoloweretsa kuganiza mwa mfundo zomveka ndi za ndondomeko (logic).
  5. Kumadzutsa chidwi (attention) pa mwanayo ndikuchotsa pa iye kubalalika ndi kubhoweka, ndipo zimampangitsa kukhala ndi chidwi ndi kutenga mbali kapena kuchitapo kathu (110).

CHITHUNZITHUNZI CHA MAFUNSO A PA MKAMBIRANO

Pali kabweredwe kochuluka ka mafunso omwe tingathe kuwafunsa ana, monga:

(Chikuchitika nchiyani?), kafunsidwe aka kamapangitsa mwana kufufuza pa zomwe zamuzungulira, kotero izi zidzamuthandiza iye kuzilongosola mwa chindunji zinthu zomwe zamuzungulira.

(Ukufuna chiyani?), funso ili limathandiza kudziwa cheni cheni chimene akufunitsitsa.

(Umapanga bwanji chimenechi?), funso lotere limathandiza mwanayo kuti aziganiza mwa ufulu kapena kuti momasuka, komanso limalimbikitsa maganizo ofufuza yankho lake.

(Umapanga bwanji chimenechi?), funso lotere limathandiza mwanayo kuti aziganiza mwa ufulu kapena kuti momasuka, komanso limalimbikitsa maganizo ofufuza yankho lake.

(Zikadzatere tidzatani?), funsolotere limamuthandiza mwana uja kuganiza kachikenanso ndi kusinkha sinkha mwanjira zosiyana siyana pazochita.

Mafunso ofunsa mwana alipo amitundu yosiyana siyana, koma kuti mafunso abwino omwe amabala zipatso zofunika pamaphunziro ankambirano ndi ana akufunika akhale ndi zinthu izi:

  1. Funso likhale lalifupi bwino m’mene ungathere.
  2. Likhale lomveka bwino ndi la chindunji lokamba ganizo limodzi.
  3. Likhale loyenera ndi msinkhu wa mwana, nthawi, malo ndi nyengo yomwe mwanayo akukhala.
  4. Yankho lake likhale loti ndi lolondola komanso lolakwika munthawi yomweyo, koma likhale funso lomwe lingagwedeze ndi kutakasula nzeru za mwanayo, moti likhale lomampatsa mwanayo nthawi yosinkha sinkha (111).

NJIRA ZOYANKHIRA MAFUNSO A ANA

Takamba kale mmbuyomu mitundu ndi kabweredwe ka mafunso a ana, pano tsopano tikambe zokhudza mayankho, poti pali njira zambiri mbiri zoyankhira mafunso a ana potengera nthawi ndi malo komanso nyengo yomwe funsolo lafunsidwira, ndipo zodziwika bwino mwanjira zimenezi ndi izi:

  1. Kuyankha pakamwa pompo pompo mwa chindunji, uwu ndi mtundu umodzi mwa mitundu yomwe ili yodziwika kwambiri yoyankhira mafunso, moti mwana amafunsa mafunso ndipo woyankha amayankha kapena kupereka yankho la pakamwa pompopompo, ndipo kawiri kawiri yankho limeneri limakhala lachangu ndi lachidule.
  2. Kupereka yankho kudzera mukukamba ka nkhani kakafupi; iyi simakhala njira yachindunji poyankha mafunso, ndipo nkhaniyo imakhala yogwirizana kwambiri ndifunso lomwe lafunsidwalo, ndipo nthawi zambiri ana amakonda mtundu wakayankhidwe umeneu ndipo amamvetsera mwachidwi kwambiri.
  3. Kuyankha mojambula; nthawi zina mwana amafunsa funso lomwe kuyankha kwake kumafunikira kugwiritsa ntchito zithunzi zoti ziwalitse yankholo, monga mafunso odziwira zinthu chifukwa zithunzizimagwira ntchito yaikulu komanso yodalilika kwambiri podziwira zinthu, makamaka zikakhala zithunzi za mitundu mitundu ndi zachikoka.
  4. Kuyankha pogwiritsa ntchito kuona; zimatheka mwana kufunsa funso lomwe kuyankha kwake kungafunike kugwira ntchito yotengana ndi mwanayo kupita kumalo ayankholo; kuti akadzionere yekha ndi maso ake ndikupeza yankholo mwa iye yekha, monga yankho la funso lokhudza zinyama za kuderalo, nanga zimakhala bwanji? Ndipo zimadya chiyani? Nanga zimaberekana bwanji (112).

MALANGIZO OYENERA KUWATSATIRA NTHAWI YOYANKHA MAFUNSO

  1. Uyetsetse kuti mwanayo akhutitsidwe pogwiritsa ntchito kukambirana ndi mafunso, komanso osamangodalira njira ya kumuuza yankho ayi, ndipo pamapeto pake tikuyenera kuonetsetsa kuti mwanayo wakhutitsidwa nalo yankholo komanso wasangalatsidwa nalo.
  2. Unene zoona payankho lako ndipo usamunamize mwana wako, chifukwa chakuvuta kwa funso, ndipo uyetsetse kupewa kumpatsa mwana maphunziro olakwika- muli monse zingakhalire -, yankho lako likakhala loona zotsatira zake mwana amakudalira kwambiri.
  3. Uyetsetse kufewetsa yankho lako kuti limveke mosavuta molingana ndi nzeru za mwanayo, ndipo upewe kukhwimitsa kosokoneza (kobalalitsa) nako nzeru za mwanayo, komanso upewe kumupatsa maphunziro opunguka, ponena kutimwanayo sanakule kotero sangakwanitse kumvetsa bwino bwino, chifukwa maphunziro amayenera kukhazikika mu nzeru za mwanayo (113).
  4. Usamutenge mwana wako ngati wozerezeka, chifukwa iye angathe kumvetsa zomwe ukufuna kumuphunzitsa ngati mungasankhe njira yabwino, ndipo uyetsetse kuyankha funsolo mwachindunji ndi mosakhotetsa, kupangira kuti mwana angatuluke mu nkhani yomwe ikunenedwa.
  5. Usamadzudzule momuyalutsa kapena kumunyoza pafunso lake muli monse m’mene lingakhalire, koma muonetsereni nthawi zonse kuti ndinu okonzeka kumuyankha mafunso ake (114), chifukwa mnyozo umapangitsa mwanayo kudzimva kuti iye ndi wosakwanira moti samadzidalira pa iye yekha ndipo zimapangitsa kuti asamakonde kufufuza.
  6. Osabanika ndi mafunso amwana okhudza Mlengi, ndi kusadziwa kwake zakupezeka mlengi, ndipo usathawe kumuyankha mwanayo; chifukwa kutero kudzampangitsa iye kukafufuza yankholo kwina (komwe mwina ndi kosayenera).
  7. Usazengereze kumuuza mwana kuti adikire kuti ufufuze yankho, kuti uoneke ngati munthu ofufuza maphunziro ndi bwino kusiyana ndikuti uoneke ngati munthu wongozitcha kuti ndi wozindikira koma ulimbuli, sichochititsa manyazi kumuuza mwana wako kuti dikira ndikufufuzire yankho lolondola (115).
  8. Uzilandira mafunso a ana mwachidwi ndi motchera khutu bwino ndipo usamazengereze kapena kusawalabadira ndithu kuwafungatira ndi kuwakumbatira ana ako ndi mtima wako moonekera, zimenezi zimamuthandiza iye kwambiri kuti alandire kulongosola kwako pa zinthu zomwe zimamuvuta kumvetsa (116).
  9. Ukakhala kuti watangwanikadi muuze mwanayo mwa mtendere kuti nthawi imeneyo simukwanitsa kumuyankha mafunso ake chifukwa sinthawi yoyenera, komabe uyetsetse kumuyankha mwachangu ukamaliza kutangwanikako.
  10. Upewe kufotokozera, kutalikitsa ndi kutambasula kopanda pake komanso kosafunikira. Mayankho a mafunso a mwana wa zaka zisanu ndi chimodzi amafunika akhale ofupikirako poyerekeza ndi mayankho amafunso a mwana wa zaka khumi kapena kupitilira, zimenezi makamaka pa mafunso omwe amafuna kuyankha motambasula ndi kupereka maumboni – ngati mmene zimakhalira pa mafunso okhudza zinthu zobisika ndi mafunso ena omwe amakhala ovuta -, pomwe mafunso ena mayankho ake amakhala odziwika, omwenso amatheka kuperekedwa ku misinkhu yonse ya ana (117).
  11. Uzilumikiza mayankho a mafunsowo ndi zinthu zochitika zomwe mwana amazidziwa ndi kuzimvetsa bwino, ndipo upewe zinthu wamba zomwe zimavuta kuzimvetsa pa nsinkhu umenewu; ndipo uyesetse kumupatsa mayankhowo maumboni akapezeka pofuna kutsindika maphunzirowo pa mwanayo, ndipo yankholo likhale la nzeru ndi logwira mtima (logic) (118).
  12. Kugwirizana makolo onse pa maphunziro omupatsa mwanayo, tikutanthauza osatsutsana maganizo pomupatsa mwana maphunziro.
  13. Osayankha funso la mwana ndi funso linzake, monga bambo kuyankha funso ponena kuti: “mukutanthauza chiyani?”, apa mwana amakhumudwa poona kuti sanakwanitse kufikitsa funso lake kwa bambo ake, chifukwa mwana amakhulupilira kuti makolo amayenera kumva zonena za mwana wawo popanda kufotokozera, choncho kholo likafuna kumvetsa funso la mwana wake, ndibwino kugwiritsa ntchito chiganizo chobwereza zomwe mwanayo wanena, monga: “ukutanthauza zakuti zakuti?”.
  14. Asadzikundikire okha (makolowo)ganizo pomuyankha mwanayo funso lina lake, chifukwa mwanayo akadzapeza yankholo kuchokera kwa anthu ena koma nakhala kuti likusemphana ndi lamakolo lija, panthawi imeneyi padzafunika kumupatsa mwanayo yankho logwira mtima ndi lolondola mwa njira yachidule lomwe lingapangitse mwanayo kudalira makolo akewo osati kudalira anthu enawo ayi (119).
  15. Uyesetse kukambitsana osati kumangolongosola wekha ayi, ndipo uzichulutsa kupereka zitsanzo ndi kukamba tinkhani, komanso kugwiritsa ntchito mabuku omwe amakhala ndi maphunziro ochuluka kwambiri okhala ndi zithunzi (encyclopedia) (120),ncholinga choti afikitse kumvetsetsa tanthauzolo munzeru za mwanayo, ndipo uyesetse kugwiritsa ntchito masewero a thupi, sewero, kujambula, kuganizira, kuimba/kulakatula, mafunso otenthetsa ubongo akudula ndikumata, kujambula ndi kamera, ndi zina zotero, ndithu kusinthasintha kumamanga ndi kupititsa patsogolo kuganiza kwa mwanayo komanso kumapangitsa maphunziro kukhazikika mwa mwanayo.
  16. Mafunso ena sangatheke kuyankhidwa pakamodzi, koma pangonopangono mwandondomeko, akamafunsa zochuluka mayankhonso amaonjezereka molingana ndi nsinkhu wake, mtundu wa mafunso ake ndi mlingo wa kumvetsa kwake (122).
  17. Mwana akamakula mpaka kufika potha nsinkhu, zimakhala bwino kumamufunsa maganizo ake poyamba ndi zomwe wafunsazo, nde timamufunsa iyeyo funso lakelo, kuti tiwone mmene angachitire ndi funsolo, kudzera mmene angachitire ndi funso lakelo tingathe kuyamba kumuyankhano, ndipo tisayerekeze kumupanga mwana kuti aziganiza mofanana ndi mmene ife timaganizira; chifukwa zimenezo zidzamuyika mwanayo pa mlingo wosakhala wake (123).

ZOLAKWIKA PA MAPHUNZIRO POYANKHA MAFUNSO

Kusalabadira mitundu ina ya maphunziro yosiyana siyana; pali mbali zina za maphunziro monga mbali ya chikhulupiriro, ya makhalidwe, yongodziwira zinthu (academic), choncho kukakamira mtundu umodzi nasiya mtundu wina, kapena kusatenga mitundu yonseyo mwa mlingo wofanana, kusaphunzitsa mwandondomeko, komanso kuchulutsa

kumudzudzula ndi kumukalipira mwana chifukwa chakuti china chake chikumuvuta, komanso kukonda kumangolankhula tokha pophunzitsa osakambirana ndi ophunzira, kufulumira pophunzitsa, kusazilondalonda zomwe waphunzitsa kwa ana, komanso kusamveka bwino pophunzitsa ndi polangiza, komanso kusemphana pakati pa zolankhula ndi zichitochito zathu, kupereka uthenga wosayenera ndi wopanda phindu (124),
zonsezi ndi zolakwika zomwe zimaononga ma phunziro ndi chikhulupiriro mumtima ndi mmaganizo mwa mwana.

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